Day 2 :
University of Graz, Austria
Time : 10:00-10:40
Martin Mittelbach is a leading scientist in the field of biodiesel over 30 years. Since 1993, he is Head of the working group: “Chemistry and technology of renewable resources” at the University of Graz, Austria. He is the author of over 110 scientific publications in reviewed journals, editor and author of several books on biodiesel and inventor of several patents on biodiesel production technologies. He has had co-operations and projects on biodiesel with numerous national and international research organizations. He was invited for key presentations or guest professorships at bioenergy conferences and research organizations around the world. In 2015, he received the European Lipid Technology Award from the European Federation for the Science and Technology of Lipids.
Fats and oils today represent the main source for alternative transport fuels, especially for FAME (biodiesel) and HVO (hydrotreated vegetable oils). Recent developments in FAME and HVO production and utilization are highlighted. Since HVO production technology is based mainly on current mineral oil industry processing methods, the scientific literature is not as extensive as that of FAME production. While biodiesel is produced from vegetable oils via transesterification with methanol, the main reaction routes of HVO are a combination of hydrogenation, decarboxylation, decarbonylation, hydroisomerization and cracking under high pressure and temperatures, using supported and unsupported heterogeneous metal catalysts. Own experiments using non food feedstocks as starting material like waste animal fat or tall oil under heterogeneous catalysis are presented. Differences and fuel characteristics of both biodiesel types are discussed. The main advantage of HVO is the use as so-called drop in fuels, meeting existing fossil fuels standards. However, hydrogenation and lower yields at HVO production leads to significant higher production costs. As feedstocks are limited, the solution will be an optimum mix of both types of alternative fuels.
- Track 3: Biodiesel Production | Session 1
Location: San Antonio
University of Graz, Austria
Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Malaysia
Title: Controlled functionalization of amorphous carbon using multiple vapour phase sulfonation for production of biodiesel
Time : 11:00-11:30
Jidon Janaun has completed his PhD from the University of British Columbia, Canada in 2012. Currently, he is a Senior Lecturer at the Chemical Engineering Program, Universiti Malaysia Sabah. He has published more than 25 papers in reputed journals, has been cited 573 times with h-index of 8, based on Google Scholar. He is currently leading 2 projects with 3 PhDs and 6 Master’s Students under his supervision.
Sulfonated carbon-based catalysts have recently gained attention due to their high activity for esterification and transesterification reactions. Typically, sulfonated carbon-based catalysts are synthesized via heating the amorphous carbon in fuming sulfuric acid. However, this technique results in catalysts with a high total acidity, but with very low surface area. A new functionalization technique is proposed to control the total acidity and surface area of the sulfonated carbon-based catalyst through multiple vapour phase sulfonation. As opposed to the typical functionalization process, multiple vapour phase sulfonation involves repeated vapour phase sulfonation of the amorphous carbon. Multiple vapour phase sulfonation was less destructive to the pores of the char compared to liquid phase sulfonation due to a lower sulfuric acid concentration in the vapour phase. The total acidity was increased after repeated vapour phase sulfonation at the expense of the surface area and pore volume of the catalyst. The first (VPS1), second (VPS2), and third (VPS3) sulfonation steps produced carbon-based catalysts with 3.2, 3.96, 4.11 mmolg-1 total acidity, respectively, whereas, the specific surface area of VPS1, VPS2, and VPS3 decreased by as much as 51, 87, and 95%, respectively, yet much less than with liquid sulfonation technique. In conclusion, the multiple vapour phase sulfonation technique can be used to functionalize carbon while controlling the level of total acidity, surface area, and pore volume. Evaluation of the catalytic activities on esterification of oleic acid with methanol showed comparable reactivity to that of sugar catalyst.
Universidad Nacional de Colombia sede, Colombia
Title: Sustainable conditions of biodiesel production: An approach of system dynamics - Colombian case
Time : 11:30-12:00
Sandra Bautista has completed her PhD in Industrial Engineering Sustèmes of the University of Lorraine and Doctor of Engineering with emphasis in Chemical Engineering from the National University of Colombia. She is teaching the Environmental Engineering Department of the Central University, with professional experience in environmental audits, both urban environmental management and rural, sustainability assessent in different sectors such as agriculture and industry.
Introduction: Sustainability assessment of biodiesel production is a topic of increasing importance due to the interest of governments to define sovereignty strategies, diversification of their energy matrix, and to set up the impact of biofuels production. In this context, this work proposes a hierarchical framework of sustainability assessment and this application through system dynamic model in Colombian case.
Methods: This research has followed a stepwise design for a new hierarchical sustainability assessment framework of PC&I (principles, criteria and indicators) for biodiesel production in the three traditional dimensions social, economic, environmental, and two new dimensions politic and technological. The first stage was to define such framework. In the second, the PC&I set was validated through several mechanisms that included expert consultation. In third stage, a system dynamics based model was designed as methodological tool oriented to display the characteristics, interaction, and influences among the PC&I that compose the sustainability assessment framework. The system dynamics (SD) model was developed and applied to a particular case, assessing the sustainability of biodiesel production in Colombia, following five stages: problem definition, dynamic hypothesis formulation, description of the model boundary, description of the model structure and the definition of the functions that will describe the selected indicators, and testing of the model and result analysis.
Results: SD methodology enabled the articulation of the problem and its conceptualization through causal loop diagrams. These diagrams describe the complex relationships between dimensions and indicators, integrating the economic, social, environmental, political and technological indicators. The SD model is defined by five sub-models: biodiesel production, land and social, water demand, net energy ratio, greenhouse gas saving in the life cycle of biodiesel and pollutant emission that affect air quality: biodiesel blended by diesel.
Discussion: The model was applied in three scenarios: baseline, optimistic and pessimistic. As a result, the social, economic, environmental, politic, technological conditions required for a sustainable biodiesel production in Colombia were proposed.
Yunnan Normal University, China
Title: A new type of high efficiency, low temperature type lipase used for biodiesel production and new biodiesel production process
Time : 12:00-12:30
Zunxi Huang has completed his PhD from Jiang-Nan University in China. Currently, he is the Director of Engineering Research Center of Sustainable Development and Utilization of Biomass Energy, Ministry of Education of China, Vice President of the Life Science of Yunnan Normal University. His main academic interest is engaged in the enzyme preparation for biological energy development and application. He has successfully developed a variety of high conversion rate lipase for biodiesel production and new kinds of amylase for fuel alcohol. He has published over 100 papers, and more than 40 patents.
Biodiesel, was an alternative liquid fuel made from biological sources such as vegetable oils, animal fats or waste cooking oils by transesterification. Compared with chemical preparation method, enzymatic catalyzed method, owing to mild reaction conditions, low alcohol used level, easy glycerol recovery, no waste material production and so on, had been paid more attention. However, the expensive lipase obstruct the industrialization of enzymatically catalyzing technique on a large scale. Therefore, this paper used a new lipase catalyst to obtained the optimum process conditions for biodiesel. We screened out a higher esterification activity lipase. Bilesu Lp100, a lipase which tolerated temperature, pH and methanol better. For in the field of biodiesel the enzymatic properties were studied, the optimum reaction temperature was 45℃, and in less than 60℃ for 12 h the activity keeping more than 80%, the optimum pH was 7.0, and the enzyme activity can be maintained over 88% between pH 4.0-8.0 solution for 12 h, better tolerated methanol. Jatropha oil as raw material, lipase Bilesu Lp100 as a catalyst, the optimum process conditions: alcohol to oil molar ratio 1.72:1, lipase concentration 112.5 U each gram of oil,, and reaction time for 24 h. The average yield of biodiesel reached 96.85%. Waste oil as raw material, lipase Bilesu Lp100 as a catalyst, the lipase amount of catalyst was 58.38 U/g (oil), the reaction time was 14 h, the average yield of biodiesel reached 95.2%. An acid value of 194 mg/g fatty acids as raw material, using the two-step enzymatic and acid catalytic binding method, dropped the product of biodiesel acid value less than 1.5 mg/g.
Chinese Academy of Sciences, China
Title: New method for waste oil biodiesel preparation: Enzymatic hydrolysis followed by chemical catalysis esterification
Time : 12:30-13:00
Zhiyuan Wang has completed his PhD in 2010 from State Key Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, Nanjing University and worked for Biomass Institute of Energy Conversion Chinese Academy of Sciences as a Research Assistant. He is engaged in the study of biocatalysis and immobilization of enzyme. He has published more than 10 papers in reputed journals and has been serving as an review for some journals.
In China, the major material for biodiesel production is waste oil and fat, which has high acid value. Traditional technology for producing includes two steps: Deacidification by acid catalysis and transesterification by base catalysis. For the use of liquid acids and bases, this way results in severe environmental pollution. The new technologies for biodiesel production include two kind of method, the catalysis way by solid acids/bases and the biocatalysis way by enzyme. However, there are some technical problems about the new methods. Firstly, there are no mature solid bases for the way by solid acids/bases catalysis. Secondly, lipase for biocatalysis is easily poisoned and inactivated by methanol. In our previous work, we have gained self-synthesized macroporous cation exchange resin as solid acid catalyst, which has high efficiency for the deacidification of fatty acid. Here, a new way for biodiesel preparation is presented after combining chemocatalysis with biocatalysis. It contain two steps. In the first step, triglycerides of waste oil and fat are hydrolyzed into fatty acids completely by lipase. In the second step, biodiesel is prepared by the fatty acids deacidification with our own solid acid as catalyst. During the process, enzyme need not touch methanol and other organic solvents and it can avoid inactivation by methanol. At the same time, the way can avoid the problem of base immaturation, the quality of by-product, glycerol will be improved obviously, the whole process is green and environmental. Immobilized lipase and solid acid can be used repeatedly, which will decrease the cost of biodiesel production.
Lunch Break 13:10 - 14:10
- Track 3: Biodiesel Production | Session 2
Location: San Antonio
Jidon Adrian Janaun
Universiti Malaysia Sabah , Malaysia
University of South Florida, USA
Title: Development of supercritical transesterification for sustainable conversion of oils to biodiesel
Time : 14:10-14:40
Shriyash Deshpande is a recent graduate with a Master’s degree in Chemical Engineering from the University of South Florida. His master’s thesis entitled “Production of Biodiesel from Soybean Oil Using Supercritical Methanol” covered the depths of supercritical transesterification, reaction kinetics, gas chromatography for biodiesel analysis and design of experiments with statistical analysis. He is currently working on scaling up to a pilot plant for biodiesel production using supercritical fluid technology.
A continuous biodiesel production process at supercritical conditions is under development for conversion of oils to biodiesel that will power USF’s bus system. The process will be solar energy driven and mobile with a weekly capacity of 400 gallons of B100-grade biodiesel. The raw material, used cooking oil, will be sourced from dining operations throughout the campus. Unlike conventional biodiesel production, the process is performed at supercritical conditions that do not require the use of a catalyst. This eliminates the need for a catalyst separation step and also enhances sustainability by saving on the large amounts of water required for biodiesel washing. Supercritical transesterification is capable of producing biodiesel an order of magnitude faster compared to conventional transesterification, thus reducing operating costs and boosting productivity. The process is tolerant to the presence of water and free fatty acids in used cooking oil expanding the range of suitable low-cost feedstocks for biodiesel production. Heat integration between the hot products and cold reactants reduces energy costs. Glycerol, the byproduct, is relatively pure and can be used for production of high quality soap or high-value pharmaceutical applications. We present our investigation of the effects of reaction temperature, reaction pressure, and residence time on biodiesel production kinetics and yield. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was used for determining the product composition.
Poornaprajna Institute of Scientific Research, India
Title: Novel perovskite type hydroxides and their oxide derivatives as solid acid-base catalysts for biodiesel synthesis and byproduct glycerol transformations
Time : 14:40-15:10
Ganapati V Shanbhag obtained his PhD from National Chemical Laboratory, Pune, India in 2008 and a 2-year Post-doctoral degree from Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), Republic of Korea. He is presently an Asst. Professor at Poornaprajna Institute of Scientific Research, Bangalore, India. He has published 37 papers in reputed journals, one book chapter and is a co-inventor in 2 PCT patent applications. He has been serving as an Editorial Board Member of Journal of Catalyst and Catalysis. He has guided 3 PhDs and 3 MTech theses. Currently he is PhD supervisor for four research scholars. He is also the Principal Investigator of industry projects sponsored by GTC Technology Inc LLC, Houston, USA and Hindustan Petroleum Corporation Ltd, India.
Depleting availability of crude oil and increasing demand for fuels has made to look for alternative sources of energy. Transesterification of vegetable oils with alcohols to make biodiesel in presence of an acid or a base catalyst is one of the routes to make a fuel which attracted many researchers. The commercial synthesis of biodiesel mainly involves the use of homogeneous base catalysts like NaOH, NaOET. To overcome the issues related to homogeneous catalysts, heterogeneous acid-base catalysts were developed to make an eco-friendly process of biodiesel synthesis. Glycerol is obtained as a byproduct which accounts for one tenth of every gallon of biodiesel produced. To improve the economics of the process, the byproduct glycerol needs to be converted into value-added chemicals like acetins and glycerol carbonate via transesterification and carbonylation reactions respectively. In this study, a novel metal tin hydroxide is reported as a strong base catalyst for biodiesel synthesis and glycerol transformations. It has a perovskite type crystal structure with metal atoms octahedrally coordinated with corner sharing hydroxyl groups to form Sn(OH)6 and M(OH)6 octahedra (where M is Ca, Zn, Mg or Sr). It is found that calcium tin hydroxide acts as a strong solid base catalyst with very high activity for biodiesel synthesis from vegetable oils and synthesis of acetins from glycerol. On the other hand, zinc tin hydroxide acts as bifunctional acid-base catalyst with hydroxy groups contributing as basic sites and zinc as Lewis acid center. This catalyst was successfully applied for glycerol carbonylation with urea to make glycerol carbonate. Further, calcination of metal tin hydroxides at high temperatures resulted in composite metal oxides which also found to exhibit good acidity and basicity. They were successfully applied for glycerol transformation reactions.
University of Maiduguri, Nigeria
Title: Effects of seeds pre-treatment on biodiesel yield from four varieties of castor seeds (Ricinus Communist L) oil
Time : 15:10-15:40
Fasiu A Oluwole has completed his PhD from The University of Maiduguri, Nigeria. He is a Senior Lecturer in the Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Maiduguri, Nigeria. He has published more than 27 papers in reputed journals and has been serving as a Faculty Board Member.
The increasing awareness of the environmental effects (global warming) caused by the usage of fossil fuel and the environmental benefits of using biodiesel which is renewable and environmental friendly energy resource has made biodiesel more attractive in recent times. Studies have been conducted on the transformation of castor oil into biodiesel. However, the varieties of castor oil used were not specified and little effort has been made to address the effects of oilseed pre-treatment methods on biodiesel yield and properties. This study therefore, investigates the production and characterization of biodiesel using oil from four varieties of castor seeds. Four varieties of castor seeds identified on the basis of colour and size named; White Big Size (WBS), Black Big Size (BBS), Grey Medium Size (GMS) and Grey Small Size (GSS) were used. Castor oil was obtained from the raw and pretreated seeds of each variety at constant pressing pressure of 135 N/m2, using a hydraulic press for a pressing duration of 12 min. Castor oil expressed from each of the varieties were transesterified by reacting it with anhydrous methanol, using potassium hydroxide (KOH) as catalyst. Castor methyl ester (CaME) process parameters used were catalyst concentration (1, 1.5 and 2%), reaction temperature (30, 45 and 60oC) and reaction time (15, 30 and 60 min). In all the experiments, a methanol/castor oil molar ratio of 6:1 was used. Biodiesel yield was calculated and the fuels obtained were characterized to determine the fuel properties. A regression model was developed for biodiesel yield and response surface method (RSM) was used to confirm the polynomial equation solved using the Design-Expert 7.0 Software. Comparative evaluation was carried out using statistical package stat-ease to investigate the best processing procedures that will give the optimum biodiesel yields and biodiesel properties. Highest biodiesel yield of 98.20% was obtained from raw dehulled GMS. Biodiesel yield varied with seed variety, and was influenced by heating method, reaction time, catalyst concentration, nature of seed and their interactions. The observed differences between the properties of biodiesel obtained from different castor seed varieties were significant at 5% level. The oil from raw seeds gave the highest biodiesel conversion, with the highest yield being obtained from GMS followed by the GSS, then the BBS and lastly the WBS. The GMS variety had the highest percentage of biodiesel yield when raw and dehulled seed is utilized. Biodiesel from the oil of GMS variety possessed the best set of fuel properties and is therefore recommended for use in biodiesel production. The developed mathematical models adequately simulated the biodiesel production process and can be trained to apply to the process involving oils of different origin.
University of Science and Technology of China, China
Title: Biodiesel productivity of Scenedesmus obliquus under nitrogen starvation in mixotrophic cultivation exceeds the combination of autotrophic and heterotrophic cultivations
Time : 15:40-16:10
Xiao-Fei SHEN is a PhD student at the University of Science and Technology of China. Her group discovered the role of phosphorus on biodiesel production from microalgae under nitrogen starvation conditions. She has pulished three papers in SCI journals.
Microalgae oil is a promising feedstock for renewable fuel. In this study, the biodiesel production of Scenedesmus obliquus under nitrogen starvation in autotrophic, heterotrophic and mixotrophic cultures was investigated. It was found that both the biomass and biodiesel productivities of mixotrophic algae cells exceed the combination of autotrophic and heterotrophic cells when acetate is adopted as the organic carbon source, and fatty acid methyl ester productivity from mixotrophic culture was 1.64 times greater than from the combination of autotrophic and heterotrophic cultures. Moreover, the fatty acid yield from mixotrophic culture (0.45) was almost two times greater than from heterotrophic culture (0.23). This indicated that S. obliquus cells under mixotrophic cultivation convert the assimilated carbon to lipid more effectively than heterotrophic cells. Proteomics analysis revealed that the activity of the TCA cycle was improved in mixotrophic culture when compared with heterotrophic culture, leading to more fatty acid synthesis in S. obliquus cells. This study indicates a great potential to recover COD as fatty acids via S. obliquus, in which lipid productivity and COD recovery can be significantly improved by combining nitrogen starvation with mixotrophic cultivation.
Millennium Development Consultancy Group, Ethiopia
Title: Farmers’ indigenous knowledge in managing and using Jatropha curcas in Bati district, Oromiya zone, Amhara region, Northeastren Ethiopia
Time : 16:10-16:40
Zufan Nezir studied degree in Rural Development and Agricultural Extension (MSc) and Agricultural Extension (BSc) at Haramay University. She has hands on practical experiences in agricultural extension and rural development field including, participatory planning, formulation, implementation, and follow-up of Rural Development Project in both the government and non government organizations. She has also immense experience of local community, capacity building, food security, civil society strengthens and watershed based project. She has over ten years of work experiences as a plan and program expert, Extension and Training expert, Community Development and Gender officer, saving and Credit officer and Monitoring and Evaluation officer.
Statement of the Problem: Jatropha tree commonly planted in different parts of Ethiopia is believed to have economic, social and environmental functions in different ecological zones. The tree is mainly planted to serve as a hedge around homestead, protection of gardens from cattle and control of soil erosion; but these were not studied and documented. Aim: The purpose of this study is to investigate experience of farmers in growing Jatropha and how their immense knowledge of Jatropha cultivation practices can be captured to improve such practices. Methodology & Hypothetical Variables: The study used sample household individual interviews, focus group discussion (FGD) of growers and non-growers of Jatropha, and Key Informant Interview (KII). The KII includes local community leaders and district higher experts of various offices. Variables considered in the study include, gender, age, household size, level of education, landholding, and access to agricultural services such as extension and credit. Findings: Farmers have experience in and knowledge of Jatropha cultivation and use for a maximum of 36 years. The main used of the plant mentioned by farmers includes for live fence, soil conservation purpose, as income sources, local medication for human and for pest control. In addition of its uses farmers uses the plant seeds for lighting purpose and also the plant accumulated of pods and dropped leaves as a good source of fertilizer. Conclusion: Farmers recognized such positive attribute of the plant as soil fertility improvement, and the intermediate benefit found from the plant thereof. However, for successful Jatropha plantation farmers’ indigenous knowledge is also playing an indispensable role. Recommendations to improve the livelihoods of smallholder farmers’, there is a need for introducing an agricultural policy promoting a complete package of incentives that will stimulate optimal exploitation and create awareness of the Jatropha plant by government.