Zhibing Li has completed his Master’s in Environmental Engineering in 2002 from South China University and worked for Biomass Institute of Energy Conversion, Chinese Academy of Sciences as Senior Engineer. He is engaged in Biodiesel Technology Research. He has published more than 5 papers in reputed journals and has been serving as a reviewer for some journals.
Solid acid catalyst of macroporous cation exchange resin with sulfonic group - SO3H as the functional groups, has the characteristics of large specific surface area and more active sites, but it has unstable physical structure and easily losses activity after absorbing water. In order to solve the problem of deactivation by the absorption of water during biodiesel preparation, the synchronization dewater way is done by pumping methanol continuously from the bottom of reactor and is adopted in the deacidification experiment of cooking oil with the acid value of 150 mgKOH/g. The reaction was proceeded in a 1L glass reacor with the reaction conditions of atmospheric pressure, 110°C, 10% catalyst quality account for the total oil, 2.500 ml/min flow of methanol. Under the reaction temperature of 110°C, the generated water during deacidification reaction was brought out by reactor by the vapor of methanol, which avoids the poisoning effect of water to catalyst. The experiments result showed that cooking oil acid value could be dropped to 0.21 mgKOH/g. By the adding of catalyst for the catalyst loss, the acid value can be controlled under 2.00 mg KOH/g after each reaction, the catalyst can be reused for 81 times.
Non-renewability of fossil fuels and the challenges associated with its utilization such as price fluctuation due to political instability of oil rich regions, environmental concerns, imbalance between energy supply and population growth and uneven distribution of these resources in the globe are some of the compelling factors to research for sustainable and renewable energy resources. Biomass is one of the most promising candidate along with solar, wind and hydrothermal energies for sustainable and renewable energy demand. Being the most abundant and bio-renewable resource, lignocellulosic biomass has the potential to serve as feed stock for the production of second generation bioethanol and platform chemicals without computing with food supply. Lignocellulosic biomass is composed of three bio-polymeric components: cellulose (35–50%), hemicellulose (20–35%) and lignin (5–30%). In this work, hydrolysis of cellulosic bamboo biomass (CBB) was investigate for sugar production using the most commonly known hydrophilic ionic liquid, 1-butyl-3-methyl imidazolium chloride ([BMIM] Cl), in the presence of sulphuric acid. CBB was regenerated from the alkaline pre-treatment of bamboo biomass and subsequently dissoloution in [BMIM] Cl and was then hydrolyzed using dilute sulphuric acid. The effect of pretreatment steps on the crystallinity index, morphology, chemical, thermal properties, ultimate and proximate properties was investigated using XRD, SEM, FTIR, TGA and Elemental analysis characterization techniques. The amount of total reducing sugar (TRS) produced was determined by 3, 5-dinitrisalcylic acid (DNS) method using UV-Visible spectroscopy. It was observed that CBB prior dissolution in [BMIM] Cl, effectively enhanced the yield of TRS (80%).
Samuel Kassaye has completed his Master of Technology from Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur, India in Chemical Engineering in 2011. He is currently a PhD Scholar at Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi, India at Chemical Enginnering department under the supervison of Kamal K Pant and Dr. Sapna Jain from Alabama State University, USA.